FUJI ELECTRIC JOURNAL Vol.83-No.3 (May/2010)
Present Status and Future Outlook of Energy-Creating Technologies
Naoto Yoneyama, Satoru Ohsawa, Hideki Yoshioka
Fuji Electric is promoting a new type of business management based on the keywords of“ energy and the environment” and has adopted
the following approaches to the creation of green energy. For geothermal power generation, Fuji is focused on developing technology for improving
the corrosion resistance of turbines and on binary power generation. In the nuclear power fi eld, Fuji is researching and developing a
next-generation high-temperature gas cooled reactor that can be used for power generation, hydrogen production and the like. For solar cells,
Fuji has begun full-scale mass-production aiming to popularize lightweight, fl exible, fi lm-type cells capable of being installed at a wider range
of sites. Fuji has also commercialized a 100 kW phosphoric acid fuel cell named the FP-100i, and is expanding its range of applications to include
disaster prevention, digestion gas use, hydrogen stations, etc.
Fuji Electric’s Recent Activities and Latest Technologies for Geothermal Power Generation
Shigeto Yamada, Shizuka Makimoto, Hiroaki Shibata
Fuji Electric has been involved in geothermal power generation since the 1980s, and is now recognized as a leading company for supplying
geothermal power plants. This paper introduces two recently completed geothermal power plants, Wayang Windu in Indonesia and Kawerau
in New Zealand. The world’s first practical application of a steam purity automatic analyzing device equipped with a fault diagnosis function
and an operation support function helps to improve the utilization rate of the plant. A binary power generating system, developed so that
low-temperature geothermal resources can be utilized, has successfully completed a 200 kW pilot unit operation, and is slated to be introduced
to the market during 2010.
Recent Technologies for Steam Turbines
Kenji Nakamura, Takahiro Tabei, Tetsu Takano
In response to global environmental issues, higher efficiency and improved operational reliability are increasingly being requested for
steam turbines, essential equipment for thermal power generation. By increasing the temperature and pressure of the steam turbine operating
conditions, more efficient power generation is realized, and in order to realize a turbine applied with the higher temperature conditions of
700 ˚C for the future, Fuji Electric is participating in the METI-sponsored development of advanced ultra-supercritical power generation, and
is evaluating and verifying the reliability of materials used for high-temperature valves. In addition, for geothermal steam turbines, Fuji has
developed surface coatings and other technology for enhancing corrosion resistance in order to improve reliability. Fuji is also moving ahead
with the development of geothermal binary power-generating turbines that utilize a low boiling point medium.
Recent Technologies for Rotating Machines
Akihide Mashimo, Akinobu Nakayama, Hiromichi Hiwasa
For mid-sized thermal power plants, Fuji Electric has completely developed and shipped 300 MVA type rating air-cooled turbine generators,
which are the world’s largest capacity class. In order to realize a large-capacity air-cooled generator, the ventilation behavior inside the
generator must be understood in detail. Therefore, computational fluid calculations of ventilation flow analysis were performed for important
regions, and the cooling effect was sufficiently improved with the optimized entire ventilation based on ventilation network calculations that
reflected those results. Also, for the 3,000 kW-class of direct-drive permanent magnet generators for wind power generation, the method for
cooling the interior of the generator at locations closer to heat-generating parts and the arrangement of magnets on the rotor to reduce cogging
torque were designed.
Technology for Improving Hydraulic Turbine Performance
Hydropower is a clean renewable energy, and promoting the usage and improving the performance of hydropower can help contribute to
a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions as well as enhance the stability of electrical power grids. The application of CFD (computational fluid
dynamics) is an effective technique for improving the efficiency of turbines, mediating cavitation-related issues, and also for expanding the stable
operation of turbines. The renovation of existing hydropower stations has become a major topic. In particular, in this renovation, CFD is
used based on the results of analysis of the operation history, which includes the ranges and frequencies of the head and the discharge of water,
to design new turbines that can contribute to improving the efficiency and increasing the annual power generation while maintaining the
dimensional constraints of the existing turbines.
Modular High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactor for the Expansion of the Nuclear Heat Utilization
Futoshi Okamoto, Kazutaka Ohhashi
The modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a new generation type of the reactor with the inherent safety. The
HTGR can supply heat of very high temperature of approximately 950 degrees C compared to that of the Light Water Reactor. Its development
has started in many countries as it has a potential to expand the nuclear heat utilization to reduce CO2 emission. Fuji Electric is focusing
on the R&D towards the practical use of the modular HTGR based on the technologies gained during the development of Japan’s fi rst
HTGR, HTTR. Major activities of our R&D work are development of the heat resistant core restraint mechanism to maximize the eff ective
core coolant fl ow rate fraction, development of the fl attened power profi le core to improve its safety characteristics during an accident, and improvement
of the evaluation accuracy of the heat removal capability from the core by the natural convection, core conduction and radiation.
Development of the FP-100i Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell
Masakazu Hasegawa, Yoshimi Horiuchi
Since 1998, Fuji Electric has delivered twenty-five 100 kW phosphoric acid fuel cell units. The cumulative operation time of these fuel
cells has exceeded the lifespan targeted by the original development (40,000 hours), and their reliability and durability have been proven. In
2009, Fuji Electric began selling the “FP-100i,” a newly developed low-cost phosphoric acid fuel cell. Integrated with peripheral devices, the
FP-100i features improved ease-of-use and is able to support installation in a wider range of environments. As part of future efforts to popularize
and expand usage of the FP-100i, application development will be promoted for fuel cells equipped with disaster response capability, fuel
cells that use pure hydrogen or by-product hydrogen, fuel cells equipped with hydrogen supply capability for supplying hydrogen stations for
electric vehicles, and so on.
Fuel Cell that Utilizes Sewage Sludge Digestion Gas
Taku Fukumura, Kenichi Kuroda
Fuji Electric has delivered a total of six 100 kW phosphoric acid fuel cell units that utilize sewage sludge digestion gas as fuel, and has
achieved a good operating track record and introduction effect. At the Yamagata Purification Center, the cumulative operating time has exceeded
the initial development target lifetime of 40,000 hours and the long-term reliability, durability and introduction effect of phosphoric acid
fuel cells in sewage sludge digestion gas has been verified. At the Kumamoto Hokubu Purification Center, the sale, as tradable green certificates,
of the power value of the renewable energy source of sewage sludge digestion gas is attracting attention. To expand sales both in Japan
and overseas, Fuji plans to enhance the marketability of this fuel cell by moving ahead with efforts to standardize designs, improve efficiency
and acquire overseas certifications.
High Output Power Technology for Film Substrate Amorphous Solar Cells
Shinji Fujikake, Hiroki Sato
Production of Fuji Electric’s new model of film substrate solar cell began in January 2010 at Fuji Electric’s Kumamoto factory. This cell
is improved in output power by about 20 percent compared to the existing model. To increase the output power, Fuji reviewed the manufacturing
equipment and manufacturing conditions to enlarge the cell area, reduce the size of the ineffective area, and enlarge the power generating
area. Additionally, Fuji optimized electrode and other patterns to improve the current collecting performance. By decreasing the output
voltage to 157 V, which is approximately half of that of existing models, the adaptability to various power conditioners is improved. Also, the
solar cells produced at the Kumamoto factory were installed on a building roof at the factory. Over the past 8 months, good power generating
performance has been realized, and the normalized generating efficiency of 0.98 indicates a high record of accomplishment.
Film Type Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Module and its Application Technology
Tetsuro Nakamura, Hisanobu Yokoyama, Hironori Yanase
Fuji Electric’s photovoltaic modules are formed by encapsulating solar cells fabricated on a plastic substrate without using glass. These
modules are lightweight, flexible, thin and unbreakable, and can be installed on a building without requiring that the building structure be
reinforced. Laminating these modules to various materials such as a curved steel plate enables the modules to be integrally formed with advanced
building materials such as roofing materials or wall materials. Also, integrating with non-building materials, such as a waterproof sheet,
and improving the installation method will expand the range of possible installation sites and usage methods as well as increase the added value.
The cells are formed with a series-connection structure that enables modularization of the cells with only simple wiring and facilitates the
fabrication of larger cells areas.